Sepsis Landmark Articles


Definition & guidelines

  1. Dellinger RP et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012. Crit Care Med 2013; 41:580–637.

  2. Singer M et al.The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA. 2016;315(8):801-810.

  3. Surviving Sepsis Campaign Responds to Sepsis-3.

Early Goal Directed Therapy

  1. Rivers E etal.  Early Goal-Directed Therapy Collaborative Group: Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med 2001; 345:1368–1377.

  2. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. Early Goal-Directed Therapy Collaborative Group of Zhejiang Prov- ince: The effect of early goal-directed therapy on treatment of critical patients with severe sepsis/septic shock: A multi-center, prospective, randomized, controlled study [in Chinese]. 2010; 6:331–334.

  3. Jones AE et al. Emergency Medicine Shock Research Network investigators. The effect of a quantitative resuscitation strategy on mortality in patients with sepsis: a meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 2008 Oct;36(10):2734-9.

  4. Mouncey PR, Osborn TM, Power GS, et al. The PRoMISe investigators.Trial of early, goal-directed resuscitation for septic shock. N Engl J Med 2015;372:1301–11.

  5. Yealy DM, Kellum JA, Huang DT, et al. The ProCESS Investigators.A randomized trial of protocol-based care for early septic shock. N Engl J Med 2014;370:1683–93.

  6. Peake SL, Delaney A, Bailey M, et al. The ARISE Investigators and the ANZICS Clinical Trials Group. Goal-directed resuscitation for patients with early septic shock. N Engl J Med 2014;371:1496–506.

  7. Hong Yu et al. Effect of early goal-directed therapy on mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ Open 2016;6:e008330.

Novel markers for Sepsis


  1. Bouadma L, Luyt CE, Tubach F, et al. Use of procalcitonin to reduce patients’ exposure to antibiotics in intensive care units (PRORATA trial): a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Lancet 2010;375:463-74.

  2. Stolz D, Smyrnios N, Eggimann P, et al. Procalcitonin for reduced antibiotic exposure in ventilator-associated pneumonia: a randomised study (ProVAP Study). Eur Respir J 2009;34:1364-75.

  3. De Jong et al. Efficacy and safety of procalcitonin guidance in reducing the duration of antibiotic treatment in critically ill patients:a randomised, controlled, open-label trial. Lancet Infect Dis 2016. S1473-3099(16)00064-5.

  4. Balcl C et al. Usefulness of procalcitonin for diagnosis of sepsis in the intensive care unit. Crit Care 2003;7:85-90.

  5. Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ et al. Should procalcitonin be introduced in the diagnostic criteria for the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis? J Crit Care 2004;19:152-7.

  6. Bauer TT, Ewig S, Marre R, et al. CRB-65 predicts death from community-acquired pneumonia. J Intern Med 2006;260:93-101.


Lactate, ScVO2

  1. Jones AE, Shapiro NI, Trzeciak S, et al; Emergency Medicine Shock Research Network (EMShockNet) Investigators: Lactate clearance vs central venous oxygen saturation as goals of early sepsis therapy: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2010; 303:739–746.









Evolving therapy


Polymyxin B immobilized fiber column


  1. Cruz DN, Perazella MA, Bellomo R, de Cal M, Polanco N, Corradi V, Lentini P, Nalesso F, Ueno T, Ranieri VM, Ronco C. Effectiveness of polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column in sepsis: a systematic review. Crit Care. 2007;11(2):R47-R47.

  2. Mitaka C, Tomita M: Polymyxin B–immobilized fiber column hemoperfusion therapy for septic shock. Shock. 2011;36 (4): 332–338.



  1. Dilip R. Karnad,Rakesh Bhadade, Pradeep K. Verma, Nivedita D. Moulick, Mradul K. Daga, Neelima D. Chafekar, and Shivakumar Iyer. Intravenous administration of ulinastatin (human urinary trypsin inhibitor) in severe sepsis: a multicenter randomized controlled study. Intensive Care Med. 2014; 40(6): 830–838.​

Beta blockers

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