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Landmark articles- Renal System


Definition of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)


  1. Bellomo R, Ronco C, Kellum JA, Mehta RL, Palevsky P, and the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative workgroup. Acute renal failure— definition, outcome measures, animal models, fluid therapy and information technology needs: the second international consensus conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative Group. Crit Care 2004; 8: R204–R12.

  2. The Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Working Group. Definition and classification of acute kidney injury. Kidney Int 2012; suppl 2: 19–36.

  3. Kellum JA, Lameire N for the KDIGO AKI Guideline Work Group. Diagnosis, evaluation, and management of acute kidney injury: a KDIGO summary (Part 1). Critical Care 2013, 17:204.


AKI- Contrast induced

  1. Owen RJ, Hiremath S,  Myers A, Fraser-Hill , Barrett B. Canadian Association of Radiologists Consensus Guidelines for the Prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy: Update 2012. Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal 65 (2014) 96e105.

  2. Lameire et al. Contrast-induced acute kidney injury and renal support for acute kidney injury: a KDIGO summary (Part 2). Critical Care 2013, 17:205.

  3. Marenzi, G. et al (2003) “The prevention of radiocontrast-agent induced nephropathy by hemofiltration” N Engl J Med 349:1333-1340

  4. Marenzi, G. et al. Comparison of two hemofiltration protocols for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in high-risk patients. Am J Med 2006, 119:155-162.

  5. Merten, G.J., et al (2004) “Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy with sodium bicarbonate: a randomised controlled trial” JAMA 291:2328-2334.

  6. Solomon, R. et al (1994) “Effects of saline, mannitol and furosemide to prevent acute decreases in renal function by radiocontrast agents” N Engl J Med 331:1416-1420.

  7. Tepel, M. et al “Prevention of radiographic-contrast agent induced reductions in renal function by acetylcysteine” N Engl J Med 343:210-212.


AKI- Sepsis related


  1. Payen D, de Pont AC, Sakr Y, Spies C, Reinhart K, Vincent JL; Sepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients (SOAP) Investigators. A positive fluid balance is associated with a worse outcome in patients with acute renal failure. Crit Care. 2008;12(3):R74.


AKI- Toxin

  1. Bosch X, Poch E, Grau JM. Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Kidney Injury. N Engl J Med 2009;361:62­72.



  1. Pannu N, Klarenbach S, Wiebe N, Manns B, Tonelli M; Alberta Kidney Disease Network. Renal replacement therapy in patients with acute renal failure: a systematic review. JAMA. 2008 Feb 20;299(7):793-805.


Renal replacement therapy (RRT)


  1. Golestaneh L, Richter B, Amato-Hayes M. Logistics of Renal Replacement Therapy: Relevant Issues for Critical Care Nurses. Am J Crit Care 2012;21:126-130 doi: 10.4037/ajcc2012280.

  2. The haemodialysis system: basic mechanisms of water and solute transport in extracorporeal renal replacement therapies" in Nephrol Dial Transplant ( 1998) 13 [Suppl 6 ]: 3–9.



  1. Gaudry S, Hajage D, Schortgen F, et al. Initiation strategies for renal-replacement therapy in the intensive care unit. N Engl J Med. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1603017.

  2. Gibney N, Hoste E, Burdmann EA, et al. Timing of initiation and discontinuation of renal replacement therapy in AKI: unanswered key questions. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2008;3:876-80.

  3. Bagshaw SM, Uchino S, Bellomo R, et al. Timing of renal replacement therapy and clinical outcomes in critically ill pa- tients with severe acute kidney injury. J Crit Care 2009;24:129-40.

  4. Vaara ST, Reinikainen M, Wald R, Bagshaw SM, Pettilä V. Timing of RRT based on the presence of conventional indications. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2014;9: 1577-85.

  5. Schneider AG, Uchino S, Bellomo R. Severe acute kidney injury not treated with renal replacement therapy: characteristics and outcome. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2012;27:947-52.

  6. Elseviers MM, Lins RL, Van der Niepen P, et al. Renal replacement therapy is an independent risk factor for mortality in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Crit Care 2010;14(6):R221.

  7. Zarbock A et al. Effect of Early vs Delayed Initiation of Renal Replacement Therapy on Mortality in Critically Ill Patients With Acute Kidney Injury. The ELAIN Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2016;315(20):2190-2199. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.5828.


Dose of RRT

  1. Eknoyan G, Beck GJ, Cheung AK, Daugirdas JT, Greene T, Kusek JW, Allon M, Bailey J, Delmez JA, Depner TA, Dwyer JT, Levey AS, Levin NW, Milford E, Ornt DB, Rocco MV, Schulman G, Schwab SJ, Teehan BP, Toto R; Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study Group. Effect of dialysis dose and membrane flux in maintenance hemodialysis. N Engl J Med. 2002 Dec 19;347(25):2010-9.

  2. Ronco C, Bellomo R, Homel P, Brendolan A, Dan M, Piccinni P, La Greca G. Effects of different doses in continuous veno-venous haemofiltration on outcomes  of acute renal failure: a prospective randomised trial. Lancet. 2000 Jul 1;356(9223):26-30.

  3. Vinsonneau C, Camus C, Combes A, Costa de Beauregard MA, Klouche K, Boulain T, Pallot JL, Chiche JD, Taupin P, Landais P, Dhainaut JF; Hemodiafe Study Group. Continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration versus intermittent haemodialysis for acute renal failure in patients with multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome: a multicentre randomised trial. Lancet. 2006 Jul 29;368(9533):379-85.

  4. VA/NIH Acute Renal Failure Trial Network, Palevsky PM, Zhang JH, O’Connor TZ,  Chertow GM, Crowley ST, Choudhury D, Finkel K, Kellum JA, Paganini E, Schein RM,  Smith MW, Swanson KM, Thompson BT, Vijayan A, Watnick S, Star RA, Peduzzi P. Intensity of renal support in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jul 3;359(1):7-20. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0802639. Epub 2008 May 20. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2009 Dec 10;361(24):2391.

  5. RENAL Replacement Therapy Study Investigators, Bellomo R, Cass A, Cole L, Finfer S, Gallagher M, Lo S, McArthur C, McGuinness S, Myburgh J, Norton R, Scheinkestel C, Su S. Intensity of continuous renal-replacement therapy in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2009 Oct 22;361(17):1627-38.


Biomarkers for AKI

  1. Shemin D, Dworkin LD. Neutrophil gelatinase– associated lipocalin (NGAL) as a Biomarker for Early Acute Kidney Injury. Crit Care Clin 27 (2011) 379–389.


Pharmacologic treatment of AKI




  1. Bellomo R, Chapman M, Finfer S, Hickling K, Myburgh J. Low-dose dopamine in patients with early renal dysfunction: a placebo-controlled randomised trial. Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) Clinical Trials Group. Lancet. 2000 Dec 23-30;356(9248):2139-43.



  1. Bagshaw SM, Delaney A, Haase M, Ghali WA, Bellomo R. Loop diuretics in the management of acute renal failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Resusc. 2007 Mar;9(1):60-8.

  2. Ho KM, Sheridan DJ. Meta-analysis of frusemide to prevent or treat acute renal failure. BMJ. 2006 Aug 26;333(7565):420. Epub 2006 Jul 21.





Compiled by:-

DR Sananta K Dash.


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